United Kingdom



The United Kingdom (UK) is located in Northern Europe, covering 242,495 km2 (93,628 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 66.2 Million (2017).  The UK’s primary energy production is 1,245 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 32 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014).  102 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2015, the UK has 3,200 kW installed capacity of tidal energy (OES). The UK is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the UK has 15,700 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 5,100 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). The UK generated 38 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). The UK is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 732
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen) July 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Strangford Lough and the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Savidge, G., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal
Strangford Lough Marine Current Turbine: Environmental Statement Davison, A., Mallows, T. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Wind Energy Planning: Lessons from the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 8 - Contamination of Water and Sediments Voisey, C., Tyrrell, D., Rowlatt, S March 2004 Report Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Benthic Ecology Walker, R., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Birds Budgey, R., Ormston, C. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Fish Walker, R., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Marine Mammals Philpott, E., Tollit, D., Mackey, B. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Underwater Noise Pattenden, A., Thomsen, F., Walker, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA License Conditions Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Strategic Surveys of Seabirds off the West Coast of Lewis to Determine Use of Seaspace in Areas of Potential Marine Renewable Energy Developments Simpson, M., Woodward, R. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Structure of Turbulent Flow in EMEC's Tidal Energy Test Site Osalusi, E., Side, J., Harris, R. May 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Studies of Harbour Seal Behaviour in Areas of High Tidal Energy: Part 1. Movements and Diving Behaviour of Harbour Seals in Kyle Rhea Thompson, D. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
SuperGen Research Helps to Answer Long Standing Problem of Shoreline 'Exposure' Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Survey, Deploy and Monitor Licensing Policy Guidance Marine Scotland August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Surveying Marine Mammals in Nearby Tidal Energy Development Sites: a Comparison Benjamins, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals
Sustainable Development for Welsh Seas: Our Approach to Marine Planning in Wales Welsh Assembly Government February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon Adaptive Environmental Management Plan November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Fishing, Recreation
Swansea Tidal Lagoon Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Temporal Patterns in Habitat Use by Small Cetaceans at an Oceanographically Dynamic Marine Renewable Energy Test Site in the Celtic Sea Cox, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporal Variability in the Benthos: Does the Sea Floor Function Differently over Time? Frid, C. April 2011 Journal Article Invertebrates
Temporal Variation in Environmental Conditions and the Structure of Fish Assemblages around an Offshore Oil Platform in the North Sea Fujii, T. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Thanet Extension Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Report to Inform Scoping Royal Haskoning December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines Cook, A., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The Behavioural and Physiological Effects of Pile-driving Noise on Marine Species Corbett, W. February 2019 Thesis Noise Invertebrates
The Benthic Environment of the North and West of Scotland and the Northern and Western Isles: Sources of Information and Overview Wilding, T., Hughes, D., Black, K. October 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The benthic impacts of the Loch Linnhe Artificial Reef Wilding, T. January 2006 Journal Article Nearfield Habitat
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
The British Ornithologists' Union Annual Spring Conference 2005 University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2005 Lanchbery, J., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
The Cumulative Impact of Tidal Stream Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Development of a Targeted Environmental Monitoring Strategy and the Streamlining of Marine Renewables Consents in Scotland Norris, J. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
The Ecology of Marine Tidal Race Environments and the Impact of Tidal Energy Development Broadhurst, M. January 2013 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
The Effects of a Severn Barrage on Wave Conditions in the Bristol Channel Fairley, I., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach Roach, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish, Human Dimensions
The Hebridean Wave Model Christie, D. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
The Impacts of Small and Medium Wind Turbines on Bats Moyle, A. July 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
The impacts of tidal turbines on water levels in a shallow estuary Garcia-Oliva, M., Djordjević, S., Tabor, G. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary Sea Generation January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Volume II: Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning, Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Aesthetics, Fishing, Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
The legislative regime for environment assessment and approval of offshore wind energy developments in England and Wales Wawryk, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Connor, D., et al. May 2004 Report Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Muillean Gaoithe and the Melin Wynt: Cultural sustainability and community owned wind energy schemes in Gaelic and Welsh speaking communities in the United Kingdom Haf, S., Parkhill, K. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The Number and Distribution of Marine Mammals in the Fall of Warness, Orkney July 2005 - July 2006 Duck, C., et al. August 2006 Report Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
The Number and Distribution of Marine Mammals in the Fall of Warness, Orkney July 2006 - July 2007 Lonergan, M., et al. August 2007 Report Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
The Ornithodolite as a tool to quantify animal space use and habitat selection: a case study with birds diving in tidal waters Cole, E., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters Pre-Screening for Appropriate Assessment Halcrow Group June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
The potential influence of Robin Rigg Wind Farm on the abundance of adult and juvenile Atlantic salmon Thorley, J. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
The potential of marine energy technologies in the UK- Evaluation from a systems perspective Zeyringer, M., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
The potential of offshore windfarms to act as marine protected areas – A systematic review of current evidence Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
The regional employment returns from wave and tidal energy: A Welsh analysis Fanning, T., Jones, C., Munday, M. November 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
The Role of Tidal Asymmetry in Characterising the Tidal Energy Resource of Orkney Neill, S., Hashemi, M., Lewis, M. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Role of Tidal Lagoons Hendry, C. December 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
The Simulation of Nearshore Wave Energy Converters and their Associated Impacts around the Outer Hebrides Greenwood, C., Christie, D., Venugopal, V. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
The State of the UK's Birds 2011 Eaton M., et al. November 2011 Report Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds
The Turbulent Wake of a Monopile Foundation Rogan, C., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Follow-on. Work package Report 6: shared, plural and cultural values of ecosystems Kenter, J., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions
The Use of Acoustic Devices to Warn Marine Mammals of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices Wilson, B., Carter, C. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
The Use of an Unsupervised Learning Approach for Characterizing Latent Behaviours in Accelerometer Data Chimienti, M., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Marine Mammals
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Three‐dimensional movements of harbour seals in a tidally energetic channel: Application of a novel sonar tracking system Hastie, G., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Tidal barrages in the UK: Ecological and social impacts, potential mitigation, and tools to support barrage planning Hooper, T., Austen, M. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Ecosystem
Tidal Current Energy Technologies Fraenkel, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Lagoon Environmental Interactions: Regulator Perspective, Solution Options and Industry Challenges Mackinnon, K., Smith, H., Moore, F. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Tidal Resource Extraction in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential Impacts on Flow Regime and Sediment Transport in the Inner Sound of Stroma Martin-Short, R., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Tilting at Offshore Windmills: Regulating Wind Farm Development Within the Renewable Energy Zone Scott, K. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Tiree Onshore Scenario Mapping Ironside Farrar March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Tocardo InToTidal - EMEC May 2017 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Torr Head Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Torr Head Tidal Energy Array EIA Scoping Report Tidal Ventures June 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Towards a Spatially Explicit Risk Assessment for Marine Management: Assessing the Vulnerability of Fish to Aggregate Extraction Stelzenmüller, V., Ellis, J., Rogers, S. January 2010 Journal Article Invertebrates, Fish
Towards Best Environmental Practice for Cetacean Conservation in Developing Scotland's Marine Renewable Energy Dolman, S., Simmonds, M. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Tracking Porpoise Underwater Movements in Tidal Rapids using Drifting Hydrophone Arrays. Filling a Key Information Gap for Assessing Collision Risk Gordon, J., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Turbine Search Methods and Carcass Removal Trials at the Braes of Doune Windfarm Duffy, K., Steward, M. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Understanding the Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Well-Being Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Understanding the potential effects of wave energy devices on kelp biotopes Macleod, A., et al. January 2014 Report Wave Noise, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Understanding the Potential for Marine Megafauna Entanglement Risk from Marine Renewable Energy Developments [Presentation] Benjamins, S., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Understanding the Risk of European Protected Species (Bats) at Onshore Wind Turbine Sites to Inform Risk Management Mathews, F., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Understanding the Role of Stakeholders in the Wave Energy Consenting Process: Engagement and Sensitivities Simas, T., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK Garrett, J., Witt, M., Johanning, L. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Upland Land use Predicts Population Decline in a Globally Near-Threatened Wader Douglas, D., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Use of a High-Resolution Profiling Sonar and a Towed Video Camera to Map a Zostera Marina Bed Lefebvre, A., et al. April 2009 Journal Article Invertebrates
Use of an optical rangefinder to assess the reliability of seabird flight heights from boat‐based surveyors: implications for collision risk at offshore wind farms Harwood, A., Perrow, M., Berridge, R. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Using Habitat Models to Identify Suitable Sites for Marine Protected Areas for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Embling, C., et al. February 2010 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Using kernel density estimation to explore habitat use by seabirds at a marine renewable wave energy test facility Leesa, K., Guerin, A., Masden, E. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds

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