United Kingdom



The United Kingdom (UK) is located in Northern Europe, covering 242,495 km2 (93,628 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 66.2 Million (2017).  The UK’s primary energy production is 1,245 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 32 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014).  102 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2015, the UK has 3,200 kW installed capacity of tidal energy (OES). The UK is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the UK has 15,700 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 5,100 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). The UK generated 38 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). The UK is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 733
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Remote Sensing Image Data and Automated Analysis to Describe Marine Bird Distributions and Abundances Groom, G., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Birds
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Mapping Benthic Habitat in Regions of Gradual Substrata: An Automated Approach Utilised Geophysical, Geological, and Biological Relationships Brown, C., Collier, J. June 2008 Journal Article Invertebrates
Refinements to the EFDC model for predicting the hydro-environmental impacts of a barrage across the Severn Estuary Zhou, J., Falconer, R., Lin, B. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
A Review of the Potential Water Quality Impacts of Tidal Renewable Energy Systems Kadiri, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Visual Tracking From a Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat to Determine Foraging Movements of Breeding Terns Perrow, M., Gilroy, J., Skeate, E. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Context-Dependent Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Individual and Social Behaviour in a Cooperatively Breeding Fish Bruintjes, R., Radford, A. June 2013 Journal Article Noise Fish
Correlations Between Benthic Habitats and Demersal Fish Assemblages - A Case Study on the Dogger Bank (North Sea) Sell, A., Kröncke, I. July 2013 Journal Article Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Development of epibenthic assemblages on artificial habitat associated with marine renewable infrastructure Sheehan, E., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general Habitat Change Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate Change on Wave Energy Generation: The Wave Hub, Cornwall, UK Reeve, D., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Structure of Turbulent Flow in EMEC's Tidal Energy Test Site Osalusi, E., Side, J., Harris, R. May 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Effect Of Tidal Stream Power Generation On The Region-wide Circulation In A Shallow Sea Shapiro, G. February 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Simulation-Based Investigations of Fishery Changes as Affected by the Scale and Design of Artificial Habitats Sayer, M., et al. November 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general Habitat Change Fish
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Application of the Time-Dependent Mild-Slope Equations for the Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Beels, C., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Far-Field Modelling of the Hydro-Environmental Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B. February 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The legislative regime for environment assessment and approval of offshore wind energy developments in England and Wales Wawryk, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision, EMF Bats
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Full life cycle assessment of two surge wave energy converters Karan, H., Thomson, R., Harrison, G. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish
Modelling the Biological Significance of Behavioural Change in Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins in Response to Disturbance New, L., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Navigation
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Temporal Variability in the Benthos: Does the Sea Floor Function Differently over Time? Frid, C. April 2011 Journal Article Invertebrates
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision, Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Birds
Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework Wright, G. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
Assessment of array shape of tidal stream turbines on hydro-environmental impacts and power output Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R. August 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
Improving visual biodiversity assessments of motile fauna in turbid aquatic environments Jones, R., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Habitat Change Birds
Out of Sight but Not out of Mind? Public Perceptions of Wave Energy Bailey, I., West, J., Whitehead, I. June 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Evaluating the Statistical Power of Detecting Changes in the Abundance of Seabirds at Sea Maclean, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates Hendrick, V., Hutchison, Z., Last, K. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Invertebrates
Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Widespread Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies in the UK Gove, B., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Modelling flight heights of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Great Skuas from GPS: a Bayesian approach Ross-Smith, V., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Automated detection and tracking of marine mammals: A novel sonar tool for monitoring effects of marine industry Hastie, G., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Evidence for Infanticide in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Explanation for Violent Interactions with Harbour Porpoises? Patterson, I., et al. July 1998 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Interactive Marine Spatial Planning: Siting Tidal Energy Arrays around the Mull of Kintyre Alexander, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
A review of crustacean sensitivity to high amplitude underwater noise: Data needs for effective risk assessment in relation to UK commercial species Edmonds, N., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates
Analysing the potentials and effects of multi-use between tidal energy development and environmental protection and monitoring: A case study of the inner sound of the Pentland Firth Sangiuliano, S. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress Gillibrand, P., Walters, R., McIlvenny, J. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Nearfield Habitat
Wave Farm Impact on the Beach Profile: A Case Study Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Framework for Assessing Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction on a Harbour Seal Population Thomson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Further Analysis Of Change In Nearshore Wave Climate Due To An Offshore Wave Farm: An Enhanced Case Study For The Wave Hub Site Smith, H., Pearce, C., Millar, D. April 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Generating Electricity from the Oceans Bahaj, A. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Harbour porpoise responses to pile-driving diminish over time Graham, I., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Avian vulnerability to wind farm collision through the year: insights from Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) tracked from multiple breeding colonies Thaxter, C., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision Birds, Seabirds
Benthic Conservation Features and Species Associated With Subsea Pipelines: Considerations for Decommissioning Rouse, S., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Modeling effects of a tidal barrage on water quality indicator distribution in the Severn Estuary Gao, G., Falconer, R., Lin, B. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Impacts of a Wave Farm on Waves, Currents and Coastal Morphology in South West England Gonzalez-Santamaria, R., Zou, Q., Pan, S. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Noise Negatively Affects Foraging and Antipredator Behaviour in Shore Crabs Wale, M., Simpson, S., Radford, A. July 2013 Journal Article Noise Invertebrates
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Nature Conservation Implications of a Severn Tidal Barrage - A Preliminary Assessment of Geomorphological Change Pethick, J., Morris, R., Evans, D. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Use of an optical rangefinder to assess the reliability of seabird flight heights from boat‐based surveyors: implications for collision risk at offshore wind farms Harwood, A., Perrow, M., Berridge, R. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Modelling Analysis of the Sensitivity of Shoreline Change to a Wave Farm Millar, D., Smith, H., Reeve, D. April 2007 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site Sheehan, E., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Concurrent and Legacy Economic and Environmental Impacts from Establishing a Marine Energy Sector in Scotland Allan, G., et al. July 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Tidal Lagoon Environmental Interactions: Regulator Perspective, Solution Options and Industry Challenges Mackinnon, K., Smith, H., Moore, F. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Bat Surveys: Good Practice Guidelines Sowler, S., et al. January 2012 Book Wind Energy general Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Renewable Energy and the Public: from NIMBY to Participation Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Seal Telemetry Inventory Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessing collision risk between underwater turbines and marine wildlife Scottish Natural Heritage May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision
Development and Validation of Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon April 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Collision Risks Between Marine Renewable Energy Devices and Mammals, Fish and Diving Birds Wilson, B., et al. March 2007 Report Marine Energy general Collision Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Developing New Ground Truthing Techniques for Seabed Mapping Foster-Smith, R., et al. February 2010 Report Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Plan: Shetland Tidal Array, Bluemull Sound McPherson, G. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision Fish
Charting Progress 2: An Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Marine Monitoring Assessment Strategy Community July 2010 Report Human Dimensions
Consenting, EIA and HRA Guidance for Marine Renewable Energy Developments in Scotland European Marine Energy Centre, Xodus Group August 2010 Report Marine Energy general Human Dimensions
Charting Progress: An Integrated Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Human Dimensions
EMEC Tidal Test Facility Fall of Warness Eday, Orkney: Environmental Statement Foubister, L. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
The potential influence of Robin Rigg Wind Farm on the abundance of adult and juvenile Atlantic salmon Thorley, J. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Request for advice about the displacement of marine mammals around operational offshore windfarms Alcock, P. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wales' Marine Evidence Report Welsh Government October 2015 Report Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of Displacement from Marine Renewable Development on Seabirds Breeding at SPAs: A Proof of Concept Model of Common Guillemots Breeding on the Isle of May McDonald, C., et al. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general Habitat Change Birds
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Strategic Surveys of Seabirds off the West Coast of Lewis to Determine Use of Seaspace in Areas of Potential Marine Renewable Energy Developments Simpson, M., Woodward, R. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Studies of Harbour Seal Behaviour in Areas of High Tidal Energy: Part 1. Movements and Diving Behaviour of Harbour Seals in Kyle Rhea Thompson, D. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Costa Head Wave Farm: Scoping Report Offshore Project Infrastructure Xodus Group May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) Decommissioning Programme Low, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Benthic Ecology Walker, R., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Underwater Noise Pattenden, A., Thomsen, F., Walker, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Marine Mammals Philpott, E., Tollit, D., Mackey, B. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Population Consequences of Displacement from Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Developments for Seabirds Breeding at Scottish SPAs Searle, K., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Marine Renewable Energy Strategic Framework: Stage 3 - Stakeholder Participation Feedback RPS Group December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement

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