United Kingdom



The United Kingdom (UK) is located in Northern Europe, covering 242,495 km2 (93,628 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 66.2 Million (2017).  The UK’s primary energy production is 1,245 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 32 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014).  102 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2015, the UK has 3,200 kW installed capacity of tidal energy (OES). The UK is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the UK has 15,700 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 5,100 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). The UK generated 38 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). The UK is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 736
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Bat Surveys – Good Practice Guidelines (2nd edition): Surveying for Onshore Wind Turbines Hundt, L., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats
Bat Surveys: Good Practice Guidelines Sowler, S., et al. January 2012 Book Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Bats and onshore wind turbines Natural England February 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, EMF Bats
Benthic Conservation Features and Species Associated With Subsea Pipelines: Considerations for Decommissioning Rouse, S., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Billia Croo Environmental Statement Carl Bro Group July 2002 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Billia Croo Fisheries Project: Final Report to the Scottish Government European Marine Energy Centre November 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates
Biodiversity Characterisation of Fouling Communities and Their Hydrodynamic Consequences on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the UK Want, A., Harris, R., Porter, J. December 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Habitat Change Birds
Bird Sensitivity Map to Provide Locational Guidance for Onshore Wind Farms in Scotland Bright, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (Post Adoption Statement) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (The Plan) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species Wakefield, E., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Brims Tidal Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Broad-Scale Acoustic Monitoring for Cetaceans and Underwater Noise in Relation to Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Scotland Brookes, K., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment DONG Energy March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Sørensen, T., et al. July 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Red-throated Diver Displacement Ellis, I., Ward, R. September 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Volume 2 - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Livesey, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Construction Phase Environmental Monitoring Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Can tidal stream turbines change the tides in the Pentland Firth, and is there an acceptable limit? Murray, R. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Physical Environment
Case Study - Wave Dragon Milford Haven Project December 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies Booth, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Challenges and Opportunities for Ecosystem-Based Management and Marine Spatial Planning in the Irish Sea O'Higgins, T., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Upland Breeding Birds at an Operational Wind Farm Douglas, D., Bellamy, P., Pearce-Higgins, J. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Shorebirds
Characterisation of Tidal Flows at the European Marine Energy Centre in the Absence of Ocean Waves Sellar, B., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Charting Progress 2: An Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Marine Monitoring Assessment Strategy Community July 2010 Report Human Dimensions
Charting Progress: An Integrated Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Human Dimensions
Clocaenog Forest Wind Farm Collision Risk Report Model George, A. August 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Co-locating offshore wind farms and marine protected areas Ashley, M., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Co-Location of Activities and Designations: A Means of Solving or Creating Problems in Marine Spatial Planning? Christie, N., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Coastal Defence using Wave Farms: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision Fish
Collision Risks Between Marine Renewable Energy Devices and Mammals, Fish and Diving Birds Wilson, B., et al. March 2007 Report Marine Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Community Benefits, Framing and the Social Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms: An Experimental Study in England Walker, B., Wiersma, B., Bailey, E. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Comparative Effects of Climate Change and Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in a Shelf Sea De Demonicis, M., Wolf, J., Murray, R. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Comparative effects of climate change and tidal stream energy extraction in the NW European continental shelf De Dominicis, M., Wolf, J., Murray, R. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment
Comparison of Design- and Model-Based Estimates of Seabird Abundance Derived from Visual, Digital Still Transects and Digital Video Aerial Surveys in Carmarthen Bay Burt, L., Rexstad, E., Buckland, S. June 2010 Report Birds, Seabirds
Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Comparison of Underwater Background Noise during Spring and Neap Tide in a High Tidal Current Site: Ramsey Sound Broudic, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Comparison of Visual and Digital Aerial Survey Results of Avian Abundance for Round 3, Norfolk Region Burt, L., Rexstad, E., Buckland, S. November 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Concurrent and Legacy Economic and Environmental Impacts from Establishing a Marine Energy Sector in Scotland Allan, G., et al. July 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions
Connectivity of larval stages of sedentary marine communities between hard substrates and offshore structures in the North Sea van der Molen, J., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates
Consenting Guidance for Developers at the EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site European Marine Energy Centre January 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Consenting, EIA and HRA Guidance for Marine Renewable Energy Developments in Scotland European Marine Energy Centre, Xodus Group August 2010 Report Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions
Context-Dependent Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Individual and Social Behaviour in a Cooperatively Breeding Fish Bruintjes, R., Radford, A. June 2013 Journal Article Noise Fish
Contrasting effects of GPS device and harness attachment on adult survival of Lesser Black‐backed Gulls Larus fuscus and Great Skuas Stercorarius skua Thaxter, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Birds
CorPower Ocean – Scapa Flow, EMEC January 2018 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Correlations Between Benthic Habitats and Demersal Fish Assemblages - A Case Study on the Dogger Bank (North Sea) Sell, A., Kröncke, I. July 2013 Journal Article Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Costa Head Wave Farm Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Costa Head Wave Farm: Scoping Report Offshore Project Infrastructure Xodus Group May 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave
Councils in Partnership: A Local Authority Perspective on Marine Spatial Planning Turnbull, S. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Counting Seabirds at Sea from Ships: A Review of Methods Employed and a Suggestion for a Standardized Approach Tasker, M., et al. July 1984 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
COWRIE 1.5 The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Sub-Sea Power Cables Associated with Offshore Wind Farm Developments on Electrically and Magnetically Sensitive Marine Organisms - A Review Gill, A., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
COWRIE Workshop on the Cumulative Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Birds Norman, T., Buisson, R., Askew, N. May 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Cumulative Impact Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in the Irish Sea Haverson, D., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Decision Support Tools for Collaborative Marine Spatial Planning: Identifying Potential Sites for Tidal Energy Devices Around the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland Janssen, R., Arciniegas, G., Alexander, K. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Decommissioning of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland: Environmental Statement MarineSpace September 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Deep Green Holyhead Deep Project Phase I (0.5 MW) - Environmental Statement Minesto June 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Environmental Impact Assessment
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Developing a Habitat Loss Method for Assessing Displacement Impacts from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Developing Field and Analytical Methods to Assess Avian Collision Risk at Wind Farms Band, W., Madders, M., Whitfield, D. June 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Developing New Ground Truthing Techniques for Seabed Mapping Foster-Smith, R., et al. February 2010 Report Nearfield Habitat
Developing regional locational guidance for wave and tidal energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Development and Validation of Technical and Economic Feasibility of a Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon April 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions
Development of epibenthic assemblages on artificial habitat associated with marine renewable infrastructure Sheehan, E., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Habitat Change Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Development of Marine Mammal Observation Methods for Vantage Point Surveys in Ramsey Sound Nuuttila, H., Mendzil, A. March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Development of Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland's Seas: Research Implementation Strategy Scottish Government September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Differences in bat activity in relation to bat detector height: implications for bat surveys at proposed windfarm sites Collins, J., Jones, G. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Disruption to Benthic Habitats by Moorings of Wave Energy Installations: A Modelling Case Study and Implications for Overall Ecosystem Functioning Krivtsov, V., Linfoot, B. October 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Disruption to Place Attachment and the Protection of Restorative Environments: A Wind Energy Case Study Devine-Wright, P., Howes, Y. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem Processes
Diurnal and nocturnal ranging behaviour by moorland-breeding Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus in Scotland Calladine, J., Morrison, N. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Diving Behaviour of Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential for Interactions with Tidal Stream Energy Developments Masden, E., Foster, S., Jackson, A. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Birds
Do tidal stream energy projects offer more value than offshore wind farms? A case study in the United Kingdom Lamy, J., Azevedo, I. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 10: Marine Water and Sediment Quality Page, C. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 11: Marine and Coastal Ornithology Thornton, P. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 12: Marine and Intertidal Ecology Lewis, J. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Mackey, B., Keenan, G. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 15: Commercial Fisheries Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 22: Socio-Economics Beeden, D. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 29: Noise and Vibration Wigham, S. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm: Environmental Statement Environmental Resource Management November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia THREE: Preliminary Environmental Information Report (PEIR) Royal Haskoning May 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Inshore and East Offshore Marine Plans Marine Management Organisation April 2014 Report Human Dimensions
Eco Wave Power wave energy power station Gibraltar May 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave

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