United Kingdom



The United Kingdom (UK) is located in Northern Europe, covering 242,495 km2 (93,628 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 66.2 Million (2017).  The UK’s primary energy production is 1,245 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 32 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014).  102 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2015, the UK has 3,200 kW installed capacity of tidal energy (OES). The UK is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the UK has 15,700 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 5,100 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). The UK generated 38 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). The UK is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 733
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Predictions from Harbor Porpoise Habitat Association Models are Confirmed by Long-Term Passive Acoustic Monitoring Brookes, K., Bailey, H., Thompson, P. September 2013 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Co-Location of Activities and Designations: A Means of Solving or Creating Problems in Marine Spatial Planning? Christie, N., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling Flight Heights of Marine Birds to More Accurately Assess Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Johnston, A., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem Processes
Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation for Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: A Case Study of the Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm Le, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Repeated Mapping of Reefs Constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an Offshore Wind Farm Site Pearce, B., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Eco-Hydro-Acoustic Modeling and its Use as an EIA Tool Rossington, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Likely Effects of Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on a Mixed Population of Harbour Phoca vitulina and Grey Halichoerus grypus Seals Skeate, E., Perrow, M., Gilroy, J. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Anticipated Coastal Impacts: What Water-Users Think of Marine Renewables and Why Stokes, C., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Changes in Flow Human Dimensions
Short-Term Disturbance by a Commercial Two-Dimensional Seismic Survey does Not Lead to Long-Term Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Thompson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Economic Evaluation of the Recreational Value of the Coastal Environment in a Marine Renewables Deployment Area Voke, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Recreation & Tourism
Long-Term Dynamics of Fouling Communities Found on Offshore Installations in the North Sea Whomersley, P., Picken, G. October 2003 Journal Article Habitat Change Invertebrates
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Barriers and Benefits: Implications of Artificial Night-Lighting for the Distribution of Common Bats in Britain and Ireland Mathews, F., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Lighting Bats
Tidal Resource Extraction in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential Impacts on Flow Regime and Sediment Transport in the Inner Sound of Stroma Martin-Short, R., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Cumulative Impact of Tidal Stream Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Quantifying the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Gannet Populations: A Strategic Ringing Project Furness, R., Wanless, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Sound Exposure in Harbour Seals During the Installation of an Offshore Wind Farm: Predictions of Auditory Damage Hastie, G., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Integrating Passive Acoustic and Visual Data to Model Spatial Patterns of Occurrence in Coastal Dolphins Thompson, P., Brookes, K., Cordes, L. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Seabird-Wind Farm Interactions During the Breeding Season Vary Within and Between Years: A Case Study of Lesser Black-Backed Gull Larus fuscus in the UK Thaxter, C., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Upland Breeding Birds at an Operational Wind Farm Douglas, D., Bellamy, P., Pearce-Higgins, J. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Shorebirds
Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Wind Farms on Peatland Birds: A Case Study of Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria in Scotland Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Valuation of Ecological and Amenity Impacts of an Offshore Windfarm as a Factor in Marine Planning Börger, T., Hooper, T., Austen, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Comparison of Underwater Background Noise during Spring and Neap Tide in a High Tidal Current Site: Ramsey Sound Broudic, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Disruption to Benthic Habitats by Moorings of Wave Energy Installations: A Modelling Case Study and Implications for Overall Ecosystem Functioning Krivtsov, V., Linfoot, B. October 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
An Italian Proposal on the Monitoring of Underwater Noise: Relationship Between the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and Marine Spatial Planning Directive (MSP) Maccarrone, V., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Noise Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A World First: Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon in Review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
An Evaluation of the Use of Shore-Based Surveys for Estimating Spatial Overlap between Deep-Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines Waggitt, J., Bell, P., Scott, B. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds
Estimates and Correlates of Bird and Bat Mortality at Small Wind Turbine Sites Minderman, J., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
A Quantitative-Based Evaluation of the Environmental Impact and Sustainability of a Proposed Onshore Wind Farm in the United Kingdom Phillips, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Counting Seabirds at Sea from Ships: A Review of Methods Employed and a Suggestion for a Standardized Approach Tasker, M., et al. July 1984 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Foraging Strategy at a High-Energy, Near-Shore Site in South-West Wales Pierpoint, C. September 2008 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Habitat Preferences and Interannual Variability in Occurrence of the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena off Northwest Scotland Marubini, F., et al. April 2009 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Using Habitat Models to Identify Suitable Sites for Marine Protected Areas for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Embling, C., et al. February 2010 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Habitat Preferences and Distribution of the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena West of Scotland Booth, C., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Estimating Harbour Seal Abundance and Status in an Estuarine Habitat in North-East Scotland Thompson, P., et al. February 1997 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Geographical Variation in Temporal and Spatial Vocalization Patterns of Male Harbour Seals in the Mating Season Van Parijs, S., Hastie, G., Thompson, P. December 1999 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
An Interim Framework for Assessing the Population Consequences of Disturbance King, S., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Ecosystem Processes
Temporal Variation in Environmental Conditions and the Structure of Fish Assemblages around an Offshore Oil Platform in the North Sea Fujii, T. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
What Drives Attitudes towards Marine Renewable Energy Development in Island Communities in the UK? de Groot, J., Bailey, I. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
The Turbulent Wake of a Monopile Foundation Rogan, C., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow
Potential Environmental Impact of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Pentland Firth at Large Spatial Scales: Results of a Biogeochemical Model van der Molen, J., Ruardij, P., Greenwood, N. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Quantifying Pursuit-Diving Seabirds' Associations with Fine-Scale Physical Features in Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Using kernel density estimation to explore habitat use by seabirds at a marine renewable wave energy test facility Leesa, K., Guerin, A., Masden, E. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Spatial Ecosystem Modelling of Marine Renewable Energy Installations: Gauging the Utility of Ecospace Alexander, K., Meyjes, S., Heymans, J. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Active acoustic monitoring in extreme turbulence around marine renewable energy devices Fraser, S., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal and Policy
Assessing the structure and temporal dynamics of seabird communities: the challenge of capturing marine ecosystem complexity Moreno, R., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes
Ground-Level Climate at a Peatland Wind Farm in Scotland is Affected by Wind Turbine Operation Armstrong, A., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Incorporating Data Uncertainty when Estimating Potential Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Riding the Tide: Use of a Moving Tidal-Stream Habitat by Harbour Porpoises Benjamins, S., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Mammals
The British Ornithologists' Union Annual Spring Conference 2005 University of Leicester, 1-3 April 2005 Lanchbery, J., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Hydropower and Environmental Regulation - A Scottish Perspective Copestake, P. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wind, Fire and Water: Renewable Energy and Birds. A report on the BOU's Annual Conference held at the University of Leicester, 1–3 April 2005 Greenwood, J. October 2005 Journal Article Birds
Re-powering Scotland: Wind Farms and the 'Energy or Environment?' Debate Warren, C., Birnie, R. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general
Harbour Porpoise Distribution can Vary at Small Spatiotemporal Scales in Energetic Habitats Benjamins, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporal Patterns in Habitat Use by Small Cetaceans at an Oceanographically Dynamic Marine Renewable Energy Test Site in the Celtic Sea Cox, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Coastal Defence using Wave Farms: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
Visualising the Aspect-Dependent Radar Cross Section of Seabirds over a Tidal Energy Test Site Using a Commercial Marine Radar System McCann, D., Bell, P. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Monitoring the Condition of Marine Renewable Energy Devices through Underwater Acoustic Emissions: Case study of a Wave Energy Converter in Falmouth Bay, UK Walsh, J., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Multisensor Acoustic Tracking of Fish and Seabird Behavior Around Tidal Turbine Structures in Scotland Williamson, B., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Cumulative Impact Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in the Irish Sea Haverson, D., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Differences in bat activity in relation to bat detector height: implications for bat surveys at proposed windfarm sites Collins, J., Jones, G. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
A Holistic Method for Selecting Tidal Stream Energy Hotspots Under Technical, Economic and Functional Constraints Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats
Evaluating artificial reef performance: approaches to pre- and post-deployment research Wilding, T., Sayer, M. February 2002 Journal Article Nearfield Habitat
The benthic impacts of the Loch Linnhe Artificial Reef Wilding, T. January 2006 Journal Article Nearfield Habitat
Landscape-Scale Effects of Single- and Multiple Small Wind Turbines on Bat Activity Minderman, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Good or Bad Vibrations? Impacts of Anthropogenic Vibration on the Marine Epibenthos Roberts, L., Elliott, M. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates
Sensitivity of the Mussel Mytilus edulis to Substrate-Borne Vibration in Relation to Anthropogenically Generated Noise Roberts, L., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates
Out in the Wash: Spatial Ecology of a Temperate Marine Shallow Rocky-Reef Species Derived using Acoustic Telemetry Stocks, J., Gray, C., Taylor, M. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general Fish
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates
Observations and Tracking of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) with Shore-Based X-Band Marine Radar at a Marine Energy Test Site McCann, D., Bell, P. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Hydrodynamic Impacts of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation on the Benthic Boundary Layer in a Tidal Channel Fraser, S., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow
Acoustic Life Cycle Assessment of Offshore Renewables - Implications from a Wave-Energy Converter Deployment in Falmouth Bay, UK Blondel, P., Walsh, J. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Modelling the Sensitivity of Suspended Sediment Profiles to Tidal Current and Wave Conditions Heath, M., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Changes in Flow
Measuring Underwater Background Noise in High Tidal Flow Environments Willis, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Tidal Noise
Broad-Scale Acoustic Monitoring for Cetaceans and Underwater Noise in Relation to Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Scotland Brookes, K., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Seasonal and Diel Patterns in Cetacean Use and Foraging at a Potential Marine Renewable Energy Site Nuuttila, H., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Characterisation of Tidal Flows at the European Marine Energy Centre in the Absence of Ocean Waves Sellar, B., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) around an operational tidal turbine in Strangford Narrows: No barrier effect but small changes in transit behaviour Sparling, C., Lonergan, M., McConnell, B. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach Roach, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish, Human Dimensions
Fish Distributions in a Tidal Channel Indicate the Behavioural Impact of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation Fraser, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Habitat Change Fish
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
First in situ Passive Acoustic Monitoring for Marine Mammals during Operation of a Tidal Turbine in Ramsey Sound, Wales Malinka, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Modelling the Hydrodynamic and Morphological Impacts of a Tidal Stream Development in Ramsey Sound Haverson, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Responses of Two Marine Top Predators to an Offshore Wind Farm Mclean, N., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals

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