United Kingdom



The United Kingdom (UK) is located in Northern Europe, covering 242,495 km2 (93,628 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 66.2 Million (2017).  The UK’s primary energy production is 1,245 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 32 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014).  102 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2015, the UK has 3,200 kW installed capacity of tidal energy (OES). The UK is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the UK has 15,700 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 5,100 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). The UK generated 38 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). The UK is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 732
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
'You don't do a chemistry experiment in your best china': Symbolic interpretations of place and technology in a wave energy case McLachlan, C. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Human Dimensions
3D modelling of the impacts of in-stream horizontal-axis Tidal Energy Converters (TECs) on offshore sandbank dynamics Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H., Reeve, D. October 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Case Study on the Effects of Underwater Noise During the Construction of Large Offshore Wind Farms Mason, T., Barham, R., Nedwell, J. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Combination of Empirical and Modelled Datasets Reveals Associations between Deep Diving Seabirds and Oceanographical Processes at Fine Spatiotemporal Scales in a High Energy Habitat Waggitt, J., et al. April 2014 Presentation Birds
A Comparison of Underwater Noise at Two High Energy Sites Willis, M., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
A Holistic Method for Selecting Tidal Stream Energy Hotspots Under Technical, Economic and Functional Constraints Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom Kolios, A., Read, G. September 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
A Quantitative, Non-Destructive Methodology for Habitat Characterisation and Benthic Monitoring at Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Sheehan, E., Stevens, T., Attrill, M. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
A Quantitative-Based Evaluation of the Environmental Impact and Sustainability of a Proposed Onshore Wind Farm in the United Kingdom Phillips, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions
A Review Of Assessment Methodologies For Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
A review of crustacean sensitivity to high amplitude underwater noise: Data needs for effective risk assessment in relation to UK commercial species Edmonds, N., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera June 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Nearfield Habitat
A Review of the Potential Water Quality Impacts of Tidal Renewable Energy Systems Kadiri, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
A roadmap for marine spatial planning: A critical examination of the European Commission's guiding principles based on their application in the Clyde MSP Pilot Project Flannery, W., Cinnéide, M. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Fish & Shellfish Resources with Respect to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the Eastern Irish Sea Lockwood, S. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish, Human Dimensions
A Study of the Risk of Collision with Power Lines by Waterbirds in Winter at Shotton Steel Works, North Wales Balmer, D., Henderson, I., Clark, N. April 1995 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
A World First: Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon in Review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Abundance and Behaviour of Cetaceans and Basking Sharks in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Evans, P., Baines, M., Coppock, J. January 2011 Report Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Accommodating Wave and Tidal Energy - Control and Decision in Scotland Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. September 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Acoustic Environmental Monitoring - Wello Penguin Cooling System Noise Study Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Acoustic Imaging around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments of the FLOWBEC Platform Williamson, B., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Nearfield Habitat
Acoustic Life Cycle Assessment of Offshore Renewables - Implications from a Wave-Energy Converter Deployment in Falmouth Bay, UK Blondel, P., Walsh, J. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Acoustic Noise Measurement Methodology for the Billia Croo Wave Energy Test Site Lepper, P., et al. November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Active acoustic monitoring in extreme turbulence around marine renewable energy devices Fraser, S., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Aerial Surveys Of Round 3, Zone 5 For Waterbirds - Final Report WWT Consulting May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Aerial Surveys of Waterbirds in Strategic Wind Farm Areas Bloor, P., Wratten, A. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Agent-Based Modelling of fish collisions with tidal turbines Rossington, K., Benson, T. May 2019 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Algorithms for Marine Mammal Modelling and an Application in Ramsey Sound Lake, T., Masters, I., Croft, N. January 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Marine Mammals
An Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Species and Habitats Identified During a Series of Recent Research Cruises around Scotland Moore, C., Roberts, J. January 2011 Report Nearfield Habitat
An assessment of the impacts of a tidal renewable energy scheme on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary, UK Kadiri, M., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
An Evaluation of the Use of Shore-Based Surveys for Estimating Spatial Overlap between Deep-Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines Waggitt, J., Bell, P., Scott, B. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds
An evidence-based approach to specifying survey effort in ecological assessments of bat activity Richardson, S., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
An Integrated Solution to Real Time Marine Mammal Monitoring for Tidal Turbines Bromley, P., Boake, C., Broudic, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Marine Mammals
An Interim Framework for Assessing the Population Consequences of Disturbance King, S., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Ecosystem
An International Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Copping, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
An Introduction to Socio-Economic Assessment within a Marine Strategy Framework Turner, R., et al. March 2010 Report Human Dimensions
An Investigation into the Effects of Underwater Piling Noise on Salmonids Nedwell, J., et al. November 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate Change on Wave Energy Generation: The Wave Hub, Cornwall, UK Reeve, D., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
An Italian Proposal on the Monitoring of Underwater Noise: Relationship Between the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and Marine Spatial Planning Directive (MSP) Maccarrone, V., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Noise Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
An LCA of the Pelamis wave energy converter Thomson, R., Chick, J., Harrison, G. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Life Cycle Assessment
An Overview of the Environmental Impact of Non-Wind Renewable Energy Systems in the Marine Environment OSPAR Commission January 2006 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Analysing the potentials and effects of multi-use between tidal energy development and environmental protection and monitoring: A case study of the inner sound of the Pentland Firth Sangiuliano, S. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Billia Croo Wave Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Analysis of the Argyll Array Turbine Layout Iterations in Relation to Ornithological Constraints Bullman, R., Shaylon, S. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Anglesey Skerries Tidal Stream Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Annex A: Summary of Operational Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter System at the EMEC Wave Energy Test Site May 2011: Comparison of Pelamis System Operational and Baseline Noise Measurements Lepper, P., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Annex I: Movements and Diving Behaviour of Juvenile Grey Seals in Areas of High Tidal Energy Thompson, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Anticipated Coastal Impacts: What Water-Users Think of Marine Renewables and Why Stokes, C., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Human Dimensions
Application of the Time-Dependent Mild-Slope Equations for the Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Beels, C., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Argyll Array Offshore Wind Farm: Habitat Regulations Assessment - Screening for Likely Significant Effects Dewar, R. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Argyll Array Windfarm Basking Shark Draft Chapter for Environmental Statement Booth, C., King, S., Lacey, C. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Argyll Bird Report Maguire, E. October 1999 Report Birds, Seabirds
Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Assessing collision risk between underwater turbines and marine wildlife Scottish Natural Heritage May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Significance of Impacts from Onshore Windfarms on Birds Outwith Designated Areas Scottish Natural Heritage July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Wind Farms on Peatland Birds: A Case Study of Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria in Scotland Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Assessing the impact of introduced infrastructure at sea with cameras: A case study for spatial scale, time and statistical power Bicknell, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Impact of Man-Made Underwater Noise from Marine Renewable in the Outer Hebrides Ward, P. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Assessing the Impact of Rows of Tidal-Stream Turbines on the Overtides of the M2 Potter, D, Folkard, A., Ilić, S. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Wind Energy Proposals on the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage March 2016 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Assessing the structure and temporal dynamics of seabird communities: the challenge of capturing marine ecosystem complexity Moreno, R., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem
Assessing the Vulnerability of the Marine Bird Community in the Western North Sea to Climate Change and Other Anthropogenic Impacts Burthe, S., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of array shape of tidal stream turbines on hydro-environmental impacts and power output Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R. August 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Assessment of Collision Risk for Seals and Tidal Stream Turbines Davies, I., Thompson, F. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessment of Displacement Impacts of Offshore Windfarms and Other Human Activities on Red-Throated Divers and Alcids McGovern, S., Goddard, B., Rehfisch, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Field Methodologies and Site Assessments Robinson, C., Cook, G. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Marine Mammals
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Studies of Marine Mammals in Welsh High Tidal Waters Gordon, J., et al. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Assessment of Sub-Sea Acoustic Noise and Vibration from Offshore Wind Turbines and its Impact on Marine Wildlife; Initial Measurements of Underwater Noise during Construction of Offshore Windfarms, and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Wind‐Farm and Other Bird Casualties from Carcasses Found on a Northumbrian Beach Over an 11‐Year Period Newton, I., Little, B. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC August 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Attitudes of Scottish Fishers Towards Marine Renewable Energy Alexander, K., Wilding, T., Jacomina Heymans, J. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Automated detection and tracking of marine mammals: A novel sonar tool for monitoring effects of marine industry Hastie, G., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Aversiveness of Sounds in Phocid Seals: Psycho-Physiological Factors, Learning Processes and Motivation Götz, T., Janik, V. January 2010 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Avian vulnerability to wind farm collision through the year: insights from Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) tracked from multiple breeding colonies Thaxter, C., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Barriers and Benefits: Implications of Artificial Night-Lighting for the Distribution of Common Bats in Britain and Ireland Mathews, F., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Lighting Bats
Barrow Offshore Wind Farm Post-Construction Monitoring Report Barrow Offshore Wind January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish
Baselines and Monitoring Methods for Detecting Impacts of Hydrodynamic Energy Extraction on Intertidal Communities of Rocky Shores Want, A., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Climate Change
Bat Surveys – Good Practice Guidelines (2nd edition): Surveying for Onshore Wind Turbines Hundt, L., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general Bats

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