Denmark



Denmark is located in Northern Europe, covering 42,921 km2 (16,571 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 5.7 Million (2017).  Denmark’s primary energy production is 185 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 33 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014). 47 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2016, Denmark has 13 kW installed capacity of wave energy (OES). Denmark is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, Denmark has 5,246 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 1,271 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). Denmark generated 12.8 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). Denmark is currently a member of IEA Wind.

Total Results: 133
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds - Status of present Knowledge and Perspectives Clausager, I., Nohr, H. January 1995 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Effect of Tunø Knob Windpark on Birds Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. January 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks: The Influence of Food Resources Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. February 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Escape Responses of Hauled out Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida) to Aircraft Disturbance Born, E., et al. February 1999 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Nocturnal flight activity of sea ducks near the windfarm Tunø Knob in the Kattegat Tulp, I., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment: Summary of EIA Report Elsamprojekt May 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, EMF, Habitat Change, Noise Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Life Cycle Assessment of a Wind Farm and Related Externalities Schleisner, L. July 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Life Cycle Assessment of a 150 MW Offshore Wind Turbine Farm at Nysted/Roedsand, Denmark Properzi, S., Herk-Hansen, H. July 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Potential Wind Park Impacts on Whooper Swans in Winter: The Risk of Collision Larsen, J., Clausen, P. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Postdevelopment Experiments to Detect Anthropogenic Disturbances: The Case of Sea Ducks and Wind Parks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Movements of Seals from Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Monitored by Satellite Telemetry Dietz, R., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Short-Term Effects of the Construction of Wind Turbines on Harbour Porpoises at Horns Reef Tougaard, J., et al. April 2003 Report Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change, Noise Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Turbine Wakes Measured by Sodar Barthelmie, J., et al. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wake Effects on Middelgrund Windfarm Jørgensen, H., Frandsen, S., Vølund, P. July 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Base-Line Investigations of Birds in Relation to an Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand: Results and Conclusions, 2002 Desholm, M., et al. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Lot 5 Marine Birds in and Around the Future Sites Nearshore Windfarm (NSW) and Q7 Leopold, M., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Visual and Radar Observations of Birds in Relation to Collision Risk at the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Christensen, T., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
Infauna Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Annual Status Report 2003 Bech, M., Leonhard, S., Pedersen, J. May 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Effects from the Construction of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Seals in Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Based on Remote Video Monitoring Edrén, S., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Development of the Fouling Community on Turbine Foundations and Scour Protections in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Birklund, J., Petersen, A June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Physical Environment
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004 Christensen, T., Hounisen, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
TADS Investigations of Avian Collision Risk at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Surveys of Hard Bottom Communities on Foundations in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Schönheiders Pulle in 2004 Birklund, J. May 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M., Kahlert, J. June 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wake Effects of Large Offshore Wind Farms Identified from Satellite SAR Christiansen, M., Hasager, C. October 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Report on Aerial Monitoring of Seals near Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Hydro-Acoustic Monitoring of Fish Communities at Offshore Wind Farms Hvidt, C., et al. May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Final Report on the Effect of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm EIA Report: Benthic Communities Leonhard, S. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Harbour Seals at Horns Reef Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Summary on Harbour Porpoise Monitoring 1999-2006 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Changes in Bird Habitat Utilisation around the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm, with Particular Emphasis on Common Scoter Petersen, I., Fox, A. April 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Modelling Total Numbers and Distribution of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra at Horns Rev Petersen, I. November 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise from Construction and Operation of Offshore Wind Farms Tougaard, J., Madsen, P., Wahlberg, M. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part I: Birds Blew, J., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Populationsdynamik von kommerziell genutzten Fischarten in (durch Offshore- Windkraftanlagen) veränderter Ökosystemstruktur Diembeck, D. January 2008 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Food Basis for Common Scoter Skov, H., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Resting Waterbirds Skov, H., Piper, W., Leonhard, S. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Poseidon Floating Power (Poseidon 37) September 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Migrating Waterbirds Piper, W., et al. October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Animal Behavioral Adaptation to Changing Landscapes: Spring-Staging Geese Habituate to Wind Farms Madsen, J., Boertmann, D. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Resolving Fine-Scale Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena Skov, H., Thomsen, F. December 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise From Three Types Of Offshore Wind Turbines: Estimation Of Impact Zones For Harbor Porpoises And Harbor Seals Tougaard, J., Henriksen, O., Miller, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Preferences of Coastal Zone User Groups Regarding the Siting of Offshore Wind Farms Ladenburg, J., Dubgaard, A. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Recreation & Tourism
Pile Driving Zone of Responsiveness Extends Beyond 20 km for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.)) Tougaard, J., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Bird Migration Skov, H., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Investigations into the effects of pile driving at the offshore wind farm Horns Rev II and the FINO III research platform Brandt, M., Diederichs, A., Nehls, G. July 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Local Effects of Blue Mussels Around Turbine Foundations in an Ecosystem Model of Nysted Off-Shore Wind Farm, Denmark Maar, M., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Star Hanstholm September 2009 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy (General), Wave
Toward Best Practices for Public Acceptability in Wave Energy: Whom, When and How to Address Chozas, J., Stefanovich, M., Sørensen, H. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
General Models of the Spatial Distribution of Porpoises Require Representative Data and Parsimony: Comment on Skov & Thomsen (2008) Tougaard, J., Wisz, M. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Masden, E. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy (General)
Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool Baisner, A., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Leonhard, S., Stenberg, C., Støttrup, J. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Comparing Pre- and Post-Construction Distributions of Long-Tailed Ducks Clangula hyemalis in and around the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark: A Quasi-Designed Experiment Accounting for Imperfect Detection, Local Surface Features and Autocorrelation Petersen, I., et al. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving at the Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm in the Danish North Sea Brandt, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Light-Induced Bird Strikes on Vessels in Southwest Greenland Merkel, F., Johansen, K. November 2011 Journal Article Lighting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Behavioural Responses of Harbour Seals to Human-Induced Disturbances Andersen, S., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
From Echolocation Clicks to Animal Density - Acoustic Sampling of Harbor Porpoises with Static Dataloggers Kyhn, L., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Interactions Between Seals and Offshore Wind Farms McConnell, B., Lonergan, M., Dietz, R. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Norgaard, J., Andersen, T. June 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Baseline investigations of bats and birds at wind turbine test Centre Asterild Therkildsen, O., et al. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Small Scale Distribution of Fish in Offshore Wind Farms Hansen, K., Stenberg, C., Møller, P. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Offshore Wind Farms and their Impact on Fish Abundance and Community Structure Stenberg, C., et al. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Effects on Harbour Porpoises from Rødsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Negative Long Term Effects on Harbour Porpoises from a Large Scale Offshore Wind Farm in the Baltic - Evidence of Slow Recovery Teilmann, J., Carstensen, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals
A Marine Spatial Planning Framework for the Optimal Siting of Marine Renewable Energy Installations: Two Danish Case Studies Azzellino, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals

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