Canada



Canada is located in North America, covering 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,103 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 36.6 Million (2017).  Canada’s primary energy production is 5,354 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 90 MWh (UN data, 2017). Oil is both the largest source of primary energy production (Natural Resources Canada, 2014) and the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014). 1,513 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2016, Canada has 22,539 kW installed capacity of MRE, the majority of which is tidal energy (OES). Canada is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, Canada has 11,898 MW installed wind power capacity, all of which comes from land-based wind farms (IEA Wind). Canada generated 32 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). Canada is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 171
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptorsort descending
Annapolis Tidal Station January 1984 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal
Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site September 2009 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Race Rocks Tidal Energy Project September 2006 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
A Digital Acoustic Recording Tag for Measuring the Response of Wild Marine Mammals to Sound Johnson, M., Tyack, P. January 2003 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Framework for Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision-Making for Tidal Energy Development in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G., Redden, A. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Absolute Probability Estimates of Lethal Vessel Strikes to North Atlantic Right Whales in Roseway Basin, Scotian Shelf van der Hoop, J., Vanderlaan, A., Taggart, C. April 2012 Journal Article Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
An Assessment of the Marine Renewable Energy Sector in Canada - Now and in the Future Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Appropriateness of Existing Monitoring Studies for the Fundy Tidal Energy Project and Considerations for Monitoring Commercial Scale Scenarios Fisheries and Oceans Canada June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Fish
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Averaging Underwater Noise Levels for Environmental Assessment of Shipping Merchant, N., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Noise Nearfield Habitat
Barotrauma is a Significant Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Baerwald, E., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses Kim, C., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Collision Course: The Hazards of Lighted Structures and Windows to Migrating Birds Ogden, L. September 1996 Report Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds
Detection of Marine Mammals and Effects Monitoring at the NSPI (OpenHydro) Turbine Site in the Minas Passage during 2010 Tollit, D., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Does the Wind Power Industry Threaten Marbled Murrelets or Do Marbled Murrelets Threaten the Wind Power Industry? Cooper, J., Beauchesne, S. March 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Effect of the Sound Generated by an Acoustic Harassment Device on the Relative Abundance and Distribution of Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Retreat Passage, British Columbia Olesiuk, P., et al. October 2002 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Exposure to Seismic Survey Alters Blue Whale Acoustic Communication Di Iorio, L., Clark, C. February 2010 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Far-Field Effects of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Minas Passage on Tidal Circulation in the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine Using a Nested-Grid Coastal Circulation Model Hasegawa, D., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Intertidal Ecology and Potential Power Impacts, Bay of Fundy, Canada Gordon, D. Jr. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Shorebirds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The Effects of Light Characteristics on Avian Mortality at Lighthouses Jones, J., Francis, C. November 2003 Journal Article Lighting Birds
Limits To Tidal Current Power Garrett, C., Cummins, P. November 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Marine Renewable Energy Legislation for Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Department of Energy January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Potential Impact of Large-Scale Tidal Power Developments in the Upper Bay of Fundy on Fisheries Resources of the Northwest Atlantic Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R., Daborn, G. July 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Fish
Potential Impacts of, and Mitigation Strategies for, Small-Scale Tidal Generation Projects on Coastal Marine Ecosystems in the Bay of Fundy Fisheries and Oceans Canada December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Process-Driven Characterization and Mapping of Seabed Habitats Kostylev, V., Hannah, C. January 2007 Book Chapter Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Scoping Study on Socio-Economic Impacts of Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia: A Research Synthesis & Priorities for Future Action Howell, A., Drake, C. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Simulation of Cumulative Effects of Nearshore Restoration Projects on Estuarine Hydrodynamics Yang, Z., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
The Annapolis Tidal Power Project Head Pond Water Levels - Impacts and Mitigations Rice, R. September 1984 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
The Extractable Power From A Channel Linking A Bay To The Open Ocean Blanchfield, J., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Marine Renewable Energy Sector Early-Stage Supply Chain Canmet ENERGY January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Tidal Current Energy Assessment For Johnstone Strait, Vancouver Island Sutherland, G., Foreman, M., Garrett, C. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Assessment of Tidal Current Energy in the Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy Karsten, R., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Towards a Statistically Valid Method of Textural Sea Floor Characterization of Benthic Habitats Orpin, A., Kostylev, V. January 2006 Journal Article Benthic Invertebrates
Using Ship Speed and Mass to Describe Potential Collision Severity with Whales: An Application of the Ship Traffic, Energy and Environment Model (STEEM) Wang, C., et al. January 2007 Report Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Evidence for Geomagnetic Imprinting as a Homing Mechanism in Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2013 Journal Article EMF Fish
Proceedings of the 2013 Nova Scotia Tidal Energy Research Symposium and Forum Isaacman, L., Redden, A. May 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general
Assessment of the Potential of Tidal Power from Minas Passage and Minas Basin Karsten, R., et al. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Assessing the Far Field Effects of Tidal Power Extraction on the Bay of Fundy, Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf Sheng, J., et al. June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Sediment-Laden Ice Measurements and Observations, and Implications for Potential Interactions of Ice and Large Woody Debris with Tidal Turbines in Minas Passage Sanderson, B., Redden, A., Broome, J. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Hydrodynamic Impacts of Power Generation by Tidal Lagoons in the Bay of Fundy Cornett, A., Cousineau, J. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Near Field Effects of Tidal Power Extraction on Extreme Events and Coastline Integrity in the Bay of Fundy Watanabe, R. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Impacts of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics in Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, NS Smith, P., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Effects of Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics in Intertidal Ecosystems of the Minas Basin van Proosdij, D., et al. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Cetacean Activity Patterns and Movements in Minas Passage: Pre-Turbine Baseline Conditions Tollit, D., Redden, A. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Cross Coupling between Device Level CFD and Oceanographic Models Applied to Multiple TISECs in Minas Passage Klaptocz, V., et al. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Nearfield Habitat
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Post-Glacial Sea-Level Change Along the Pacific Coast of North America Shugar, D., et al. August 2014 Journal Article
Marine Mammals and Ocean Noise: Future Directions and Information Needs with Respect to Science, Policy and Law in Canada Williams, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Update on the Marine Environmental Consequences of Tidal Power Development in the Upper Reaches of the Bay of Fundy Gordon, D., Dadswell, M. June 1984 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Tidal Stream Turbines on the Hydrodynamics and the Sediment Transport - Application to the Alderney Race (Raz Blanchard), France Thiébot, J., de Bois, P., Guillou, S. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Multibeam Acoustic Detection of Fish and Water Column Targets at High-Flow Sites Melvin, G., Cochrane, N. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general Fish
Predicting Spatial Patterns of Eagle Migration using a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model: A Case Study Associated with a Mountain-Ridge Wind Development Ainslie, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Geographic Variation in Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of activity and fatality of migratory bats at a wind energy facility in Alberta, Canada Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Applying Research to Conservation: Science-Based Strategies Can Save Bats at Wind Farms Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. June 2014 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Large-Scale Mitigation Experiment to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Origins and Migratory Patterns of Bats Killed by Wind Turbines in Southern Alberta: Evidence from Stable Isotopes Baerwald, E., Patterson, W., Barclay, R. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Evidence of Late-Summer Mating Readiness and Early Sexual Maturation in Migratory Tree-Roosting Bats Found Dead at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Mortality at a Wind Power Facility in Central Canada Jameson, J., Willis, C. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Increased Flight Altitudes among Migrating Golden Eagles Suggest Turbine Avoidance at a Rocky Mountain Wind Installation Johnston, N., Bradley, J., Otter, K. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Understanding Landscape Patterns of Temporal Variability in Avian Populations to Improve Environmental Impact Assessments Milne, R., Bennett, L. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
An Update on the Status of Red Bats, Lasiurus blossevillii and Lasiurus borealis, in British Columbia Nagorsen, D., Paterson, B. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Effects of Weather on Avian Migration at Proposed Ridgeline Wind Energy Sites Thomas, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bats and Bat Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources July 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Analysis of Factors that Influence Development of Wind Power in Atlantic Canada: Application of Discrete Regression Modelling Chen, Q. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics
The Regulation of Tidal Energy Development Off Nova Scotia: Navigating Foggy Waters Doelle, M., et al. September 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Flocculation and Sediment Deposition in a Hypertidal Creek O'Laughlin, C., van Proosdij, D., Milligan, T. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Influence of Varying Tidal Prism on Hydrodynamics and Sedimentary Processes in a Hypertidal Salt Marsh Creek O'Laughlin, C., van Proosdij, D. April 2013 Journal Article Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Macrotidal Estuaries: A Region of Collision Between Migratory Marine Animals and Tidal Power Development Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Measurement of Long-Term Ambient Noise and Tidal Turbine Levels in the Bay of Fundy Martin, B., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Marine Life: Publication Patterns, New Discoveries, and Future Directions in Research and Management Williams, R., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Towards Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals at a Tidal Turbine Site: Grand Passage, NS, Canada Malinka, C., Hay, A., Cheel, R. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Ocean Management Plan Fisheries and Oceans Canada January 2007 Report Socio-economics
A Survey of Acoustic Harassment Device (AHD) Use in the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada Johnston, D., Woodley, T. January 1998 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
A Finite Element Circulation Model for Embayments with Drying Intertidal Areas and its Application to the Quoddy Region of the Bay of Fundy Greenberg, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Tidal-Stream Energy Resource in Passamaquoddy-Cobscook Bays: A Fresh Look at an Old Story Brooks, D. November 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Activity of Tree Bats at Anthropogenic Tall Structures: Implications for Mortality of Bats at Wind Turbines Jameson, J., Willis, C. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Ashton Ridge Golf Course Wind Farm Project Environmental Screening Report Environmental Business Consultants March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Bat Species Composition and Activity at the Proposed Glen Dhu Wind Development Site, Pictou County, Nova Scotia Broders, H., Henderson, L. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Bird and Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines Castle River Wind Farm, Alberta, 2001-2002 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Monitoring at the McBride Lake Wind Farm, Alberta 2003-2004 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Bird Monitoring at Toronto's Exhibition Place Wind Turbine James, R., Coady, G. August 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Decision Support Requirements for Wind Farm Placement Planning in Alberta Adagha, O., Carpendale, S., Levy, R. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Demonstration Windpower Project St. Lawrence Bird Surveys Jacques Whitford Environment May 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Draft Avian and Bat Post-Construction Monitoring Plan: Raleigh Wind Farm, Invenergy Canada Dillon Consulting April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Exhibition Place Wind Turbine Report on Bird Monitoring in 2003 James, R., Coady, G. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
A GIS-Multicriteria Approach to Analyzing Noise and Visual Impacts of Wind Farms Fang, B. February 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Guidelines for Raptor Conservation during Urban and Rural Land Development in British Columbia B.C. Ministry of Forests February 2013 Report Birds
Holberg Wind Energy Assessment Report British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Lingan 4MW Wind Power Project: Registration and Environmental Assessment Dillon Consulting October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Melancthon Grey Wind Project Environmental Screening Report Stantec Consulting February 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Monitoring of Bird and Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines at the Summerview Wind Power Project, Alberta 2005-2006 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Pre-Construction Bat Activity At Four Wind Energy Sites in Northeastern British Columbia Nagorsen, D., Robertson, I., Sarell, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Diving Depths of Four Alcids Piatt, J., Nettleship, D. April 1985 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Foraging Behaviour and Reproductive Season Habitat Selection of Northeast Pacific Porpoises Hall, A. September 2011 Thesis Marine Mammals
Ocean Tracking Network Canada: A Network Approach to Addressing Critical Issues in Fisheries and Resource Management with Implications for Ocean Governance Cooke, S., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Fish, Socio-economics

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