In December 2011, ANDRITZ HYDRO Hammerfest successfully deployed its 1 megawatt (MW) pre-commercial tidal turbine named HS1000 at EMEC’s tidal test site, and has been testing it since then in order to validate the technology for future tidal power arrays. The device delivered its first energy to the grid in February 2012. Based on the learning gained during its testing period at EMEC, ANDRITZ HYDRO Hammerfest will further develop the technology and plan to deploy a 10MW commercial array in the Sound of Islay.
EMEC main tidal test site, located at thee the Fall of Warness, to the west of the island of Eday, was chosen for its high velocity marine currents which reach almost 4m/sec (7.8 knots) at spring tides. The facility offers eight test berths at depths ranging from 25m to 50m in an area 2km across and approximately 4km in length. (EMEC) The technology is developed from long experience of modern technology used in wind mills, subsea oil & gas production and in hydro-power plants.
The technology has been thoroughly tested and has experienced regularity in delivering electricity to the power grid. The HS1000 turbine is based on the technology of a smaller turbine, the HS300, which was installed in Norway as the first ever tidal current turbine with permanent connection to the public grid in 2004. The prototype has been in operation for more than 17,000 hours, delivering over 1.5 GWh to the grid and showed 98% availability during testing.
The 1MW HS1000 device is a fully submerged, bottom mounted, rotor, variable pitch turbine. The nacelle houses the turbine, gearbox, generator and associated components. The pitch of the rotors is variable to present the most efficient angle of incidence to the oncoming flow. On reversal of the tide the rotors alter pitch so that the turbine generates maximum generation from the tidal environment, hence the nacelle does not yaw. The rotor blades turn slowly when the tide is running; the gearbox increases the rotational speed to allow for generation at network frequency. The device itself incorporates a self-levelling device allowing the rotor to face directly into the current.
The turbine is mounted on a support structure a 22 meter high seabed mounted substructure. Three ballast packages will be used as gravity based foundations resulting in the substructure having a dry weight of approximately 800 tonnes. It is possible to remove the nacelle from the support structure, leaving it in situ while the nacelle is taken away for maintenance.
It is currently planned that each substructure will be lifted, transported and set down during a neap slack tide period. Once moved into position additional ballast will be loaded onto the substructure to secure it against overturning loads imposed by the turbine. Once the substructure is secured in position and stabilised, the high voltage cable will be lifted to the substructure, pulled in and then secured ready for final mating.
A DP vessel with a heavy lift crane was used to install the substructure, cable and nacelle. The exact vessel used has not been specified.
The device was installed at European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) tidal device test area in Fall of Warness, Orkney.
Coordinates: 59.1421°, -2.8176°
|Section 36 (Electricity Act) Concent||Scottish Ministers|
|Marine License (Marine (Scotland) Act) Concent||Marine Scotland||Issued 2011|
|FEPA License||Marine Scotland||Issued 2011|
|Licence to Disturb Marine Species||Marine Scotland|
|Licence to Disturb Basking Shark||Marine Scotland|
|Town and County Planning Permission||Orkney islands Council|
- FEPA condition 2: The licensee shall ensure that all substances or articles deposited during the execution of the works are inert and do not contain toxic elements which may be harmful to the marine environment, the living resources which it supports or human health.
- FEPA condition 3: The licensee shall ensure that only the substances or articles described in Part 1 of the Schedule shall be deposited under authority of the license and that any debris or waste materials arising during the course of the works are removed from the site of the works for disposal at an approved location above the tidal level of Mean High Water Springs.
- FEPA condition 14: The licensee shall where appropriate undertake monitoring of the area pre and post installation and post decommissioning of the deposition the seabed subject to this license e.g. deployment of a remotely operated vehicle. The monitoring shall incorporate, if deemed necessary by the licensing authority, physical, chemical and biological investigations, to assess the status of the authorised deposits and their impact in the receiving environment. The scope, frequency and spatial extent of the investigations shall be approved by the licensing authority. Successive operations at each of the berth sites will only require monitoring to be undertaken if the new operation results in any additional deposits on the seabed.
- FEPA condition 15: The licensee shall submit where appropriate, written reports to the licensing authority detailing the results of the monitoring. The written reports shall be prepared by the licensee detailing, where appropriate, the status of the authorised deposits and their impact on the receiving environment and their position (latitude and longitude to three decimal places of minutes). The written report should also detail the nature, quantity and fate of all the deposits that are relocated and/or replaces on the seabed during maintenance and operations. Previous monitoring reports may be amended by the addition of an appendix detailing new deposits on the seabed.
- FEPA supplementary condition a: The licensee will ensure they comply with the environmental monitoring plans submitted by the licensee in support of the FEPA application. Prior to installation the monitoring plan must be signed off and held by Marine Scotland.
- FEPA supplementary condition b The licensee will produce a report within 8 weeks of the monitoring being completed at the EMEC site. It should review all data collected through the EMP to determine any associated impacts. This report will be submitted to the licensing authority (Marine Scotland).
- FEPA supplementary condition c The licensee will ensure a Marine Mammal Observer (MMO) is in place on the installation vessel during all noisy installation operations likely to cause disturbance.
- FEPA supplementary condition d The licensee must ensure that the DP vessel operator follows the soft start protocol as outlined in the EMP to ensure that basking sharks, cetaceans and seals within the vicinity of the noisy works have sufficient time to move out of the 500 m buffer zone.
- FEPA supplementary condition e The licensee will undertake monitoring in accordance with the EMP which will be signed off by SNH and Marine Scotland prior to installation.
- FEPA supplementary condition f If through monitoring it is determined that the device could have an adverse impact on the site integrity then any further mitigation measures may be required at the discretion of Marine Scotland. CPA Must comply with requirements of FEPA license.
The HS1000 device was removed from the EMEC site in 2015.
Baseline studies for the Fall of Warness test site were performed by EMEC and can be found here.
- Harbour seals from Sanday SAC, approximately 30 km from the proposed test berth, may potentially use the Fall of Warness to travel between haulout sites. The Seal Skerry harbour seal haulout is located 3 km to the north of the proposed test berth.
- Grey seals from Faray SAC, approximately 10 km from the proposed test berth, may potentially use the Fall of Warness to travel between haulout sites. Muckle Green Holm grey seal colony is located 3 km to the south west of the proposed test berth. EMEC observations of marine mammal surface activity indicate grey seal concentrations may be greatest closer to the coast.
- Harbour porpoise are likely to be present at the proposed test berth
- Cetaceans are likely to be present at the proposed test berth
- Little Green Holm cormorant breeding colony is located approximately 3.5 km to the south of the proposed test berth
- Basking sharks likely to be present at the proposed test berth