Annex IV distributes metadata forms (questionnaires) to solicit information from developers involved in environmental monitoring around marine renewable energy project sites around the world. This page provides project descriptions, baseline assessment, post-installation monitoring, and links to available data and reports. Content is updated on an annual basis.

Enermar Project

Project Site Annex IV

Title: Enermar Project
Start Date:
January 01, 2001
Research End Date:
January 01, 2005
Technology Type:
Info Updated:
November 13, 2017
Enermar Project
Project Status: 
Device no longer in the water
Kobold vertical axis turbine
Project Scale: 
Full-scale Prototype
Installed Capacity: 
50 KW

The Kobold turbine is a rotor mounted on a vertical shaft which produces mechanical energy by exploiting marine currents. The system is moored by four anchoring blocks where the water depth is 18-25 m and the expected current velocity is about 2 m/s. The system consists of a buoyant support platform and the patented Kobold turbine. The platform, designed by the Ponte di Archimede Company, houses the gearbox, a 160 kW synchronous generator and the necessary electrical equipment. The Kobold turbine (cross flow rotor, 6 m in diameter, equipped with three blades with a span of 5 m) is placed under the platform. More information is available from this 2007 presentation.


The Enermar Project is located in the Strait of Messina, along the Sicilian coast. At a depth of 18-25 meters, the closest city is Ganzirri, Italy.

Licensing Information: 

The Enermar prototype was financed by Ponte di Archimede Company, together with a 50% fund paid by the Sicilian Region Administration (Regione Siciliana), in the framework of European Union Structural Funds.

Process Status: 

The Enermar Project was installed in 2001. At 2 m/s the power produced was about 25 kW (the design power is 80 kW). The global net efficiency, including electric and mechanical losses, was estimated at about 25%.


The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) has funded this project that was demonstrated at near full-scale from 2004 to 2005.

Enermar Project is located in Italy.

Post-Installation Monitoring: Enermar Project

ReceptorMonitoring Program Description Design and Methods Results Status
  • Noise

Underwater acoustic environmental characterization - Kobold turbine noise assessment

Underwater noise measures were taken in two days (10th and 11th July 2007) at 16 and 30 m. The sensor was set tight to a mooring cable towards east (day 10) and NE (day 11).


An ITC 8073 calibrated hydrophone was used as an underwater sensor while surface acquisition and recording was carried out using a Sinus Messtechnik Samurai workstation. The system acquired signals for about 20 hours.

The Strait is cyclically involved in a massive water flow from the South Mediterranean up to the Tyrrhenian sea and back and the low frequency component (up to 20/40 Hz, most of which comes from flow noise) is normally the most intense part of the signal.


The device noise intensity and frequencies of both turbines (k16 and k18) are described in the report.

  • Visual Landscape

To evaluate the landscape impact of the Kobold prototype in the Strait of Messina

Semi-quantitative method to model a landscape assessment

The site where the plant is positioned at a distance of about 150 – 200 m from the shore. The results allow us to state that the measure of the impact landscape has been a huge success. In fact, the fuzzy variable representing the impact is 98% below the tolerance threshold.

Reports and Papers


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