Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Solar energy from the sun creates temperature differentials that result in wind. The interaction between wind and the surface of water creates waves, which are larger when there is a greater distance for them to build up. Wave energy potential is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast because of the global direction of wind. When evaluating wave energy as a technology type, it is important to distinguish between the four most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

This device floats on the surface of the water, held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity. EMF generated by electrical transmission cables and acoustic of these devices may be a concern for marine organisms. The presence of the buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as potential minor collision risk and roosting sites. Potential also exists for entanglement in mooring lines. Energy removed from the waves may also affect the shoreline, resulting in a recommendation that sites remain a considerable distance from the shore.

Surface Attenuator

These devices act similarly to point absorber buoys, with multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. A flexing motion is created by swells that drive hydraulic pumps to generate electricity. Environmental effects are similar to those of point absorber buoys, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

Oscillating water column devices can be located on shore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity. Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers.

Overtopping Device

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a greater water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either on shore or floating offshore. Floating devices will have environmental concerns about the mooring system affecting benthic organisms, organisms becoming entangled, or EMF effects produced from subsea cables. There is also some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise and wave energy removal affecting the nearfield habitat.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes. Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision, artificial reefing near the fixed point, EMF effects from subsea cables, and energy removal effecting sediment transport.

Total Results: 328
Title Author Research Start Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Levelized Cost of Energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy Bull, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Environmental Impact Assessment: Gathering Experiences from Wave Energy Test Centres in Europe Greaves, D., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wave
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Tidal, Wave
Wave Energy Converter Array Environmental Evaluation Tools Jones, C., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Wave
A Portable, Real-Time Passive Acoustic System and Autonomous Hydrophone Array for Noise Monitoring of Offshore Wave Energy Projects Haxel, J., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Wave Noise
Study on the Influence of the Distance to Shore for a Wave Energy Farm Operating in the Central Part of the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Onea, F. April 2016 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Reviews of Power Supply and Environmental Energy Conversions for Artificial Upwelling Zhang, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article OTEC, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy Level and Geographic Setting Correlate with Florida Beach Water Quality Feng, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal
Using kernel density estimation to explore habitat use by seabirds at a marine renewable wave energy test facility Leesa, K., Guerin, A., Masden, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wave Seabirds
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Tidal, Wave Noise
Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK Garrett, J., Witt, M., Johanning, L. January 2016 Book Chapter Wave Noise
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Impact Assessment in the Marine Environment: A Comparison of Legal Frameworks Guerra, F., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Discussion of the Effects of the Underwater Noise Radiated by a Wave Energy Device - Portugal Cruz, E., Simas, T., Kasanen, E. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave Energy Removal
Environmental Assessment, Management and Monitoring of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project Ward, E., Sawyer, T. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind Birds
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Book Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Wave, Tidal Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals Tougaard, J. July 2015 Journal Article Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Software Analysis Tools for Wave Sensors Morrison, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Wave
The Simulation of Oscillating Wave Surge Converters using a Boussinesq Model: Wave Disturbances around an Array Greenwood, C., Christie, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Wave
Integrating Ocean Wave Energy at Large-Scales: A Study of the US Pacific Northwest Parkinson, S., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wave Farfield Environment
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Environmental Impact Assessment Tool for Wave Energy Conversion Beyene, A., et al. March 2015 Report Wave
The Challenging Life of Wave Energy Devices at Sea: A Few Points to Consider Tiron, R., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wave Static Device
The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of Wave Energy Using GIS Based Analysis: The Case Study of Portugal Castro-Santos, L., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Session 1 Presentation - Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: A Coupled Wave and Hydrodynamic Model of Santa Cruz, Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Chang, G., Roberts, J. January 2015 Presentation Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Non-Intrusive Wave Field Measurement Bourdier, S., et al. November 2014 Report Wave
Environmental Impact Assessments for Wave Energy Developments - Learning from Existing Activities and Informing Future Research Priorities Leeney, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wave Fish
Anticipated Coastal Impacts: What Water-Users Think of Marine Renewables and Why Stokes, C., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics
Assessment of the Changes Induced by a Wave Energy Farm in the Nearshore Wave Conditions Bento, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter Bull, D., et al. September 2014 Report Wave
Investigation of Spatial Variation of Sea States Offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA Using a Hindcast Model Dallman, A., Neary, V., Stephenson, M. September 2014 Report Wave
Wave Farm Impact: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Iglesias, G., Carballo, R. September 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave Farm Modelling of Oscillating Wave Surge Converters Sarkar, D., Renzi, E., Dias, F. July 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal
Physical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters Sheng, W., Alcorn, R., Lewis, T. July 2014 Journal Article Wave
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera Ltd June 2014 Report Tidal, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Modelling Changes to Physical Environmental Impacts Due to Wave Energy Array Layouts Smith, H., Ashton, I. May 2014 Presentation Wave Farfield Environment
Advances in Research to Understand the Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices in the United States Brown-Saracino, J. May 2014 Presentation Tidal, Wave
EMEC Billia Croo Wave Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Wave Birds, Marine Mammals
A Wave Farm for an Island: Detailed Effects on the Nearshore Wave Climate Veigas, M., Ramos, V., Iglesias, G. May 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
The Hebridean Wave Model Christie, D. May 2014 Presentation Wave
Annex IV - International Collaboration to Investigate Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Presentation Tidal, Wave
Development and Consenting of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project, Experiences from Down Under Ward, E. April 2014 Presentation Wave Legal and Policy
Perceptions of the Inshore Wave Resource by Beach Water Users in the Lee of Wave Hub Stokes, C. April 2014 Presentation Wave Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
Historic Environment Guidance for Wave and Tidal Renewable Energy Robertson, P., Shaw, A. April 2014 Presentation Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Littoral Characterisation of West Mainland Orkney: The Relationship between Wave Energy, Topography and the Biological Community Want, A., Side, J., Bell, M. April 2014 Presentation Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Analysis of Experience from Environmental Impact Assessments of Wave Energy Test Centres Conley, D., et al. April 2014 Presentation Wave
Using the FLOWBEC Seabed Frame to Understand Underwater Interactions between Diving Seabirds, Prey, Hydrodynamics and Tidal and Wave Energy Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2014 Presentation Tidal, Wave Seabirds
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Wave, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Further Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Porter, A., Ruehl, K., Chartrand, C. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave
Annex IV - Investigating Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Through International Cooperation Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave, Tidal Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Analysis of the Impacts of Wave Energy Converter Arrays on the Nearshore Wave Climate O'Dea, A., Haller, M. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Tidal, Wave Ecosystem
Wave Farm Impact on the Beach Profile: A Case Study Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. April 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
A Remotely Operated, Autonomous Wave Energy Converter System Lewis, T. March 2014 Thesis Wave
D2.12 Collation of Wave Simulation Methods Guillouzouic, B. January 2014 Report Wave
Environmental Monitoring at the Sotenäs Wave Energy Park Sundberg J. January 2014 Research Study Annex IV Wave Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Underwater Radiated Noise from Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters: Noise Characteristics and Possible Environmental Effects Haikonen, K. January 2014 Thesis Wave Noise
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Sotenäs Project Seabased AB January 2014 Project Site Annex IV Wave
Wave Energy Test Site Environmental Assessment: Marine Corps Base Hawaii Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) January 2014 Report Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera Ltd January 2014 Report Wave, Tidal
D2.5 EC Report on Instrumentation Best Practice Têtu, A., et al. December 2013 Report Wave
Biological and Existing Data Analysis to Inform Risk of Collision and Entanglement Hypotheses Kropp, R. December 2013 Report Wave Static Device Marine Mammals
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewables Thomsen F. December 2013 Research Study Annex IV Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Wave and Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Marine Mammal Impacts Sparling, C., et al. October 2013 Report Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Coastal Impact Induced by a Pelamis Wave Farm Operating in the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Soares, C. October 2013 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Investigation of Floating Wave Energy Converters for Coastal Protection Purpose Zanuttigh, B., Angelelli, E. October 2013 Journal Article Wave Climate Change
The Simulation of Nearshore Wave Energy Converters and their Associated Impacts around the Outer Hebrides Greenwood, C., Christie, D., Venugopal, V. September 2013 Conference Paper Wave Energy Removal
Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Ruehl, K., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Wave
Enabling Wave Power: Streamlining Processes for Progress Greaves, D., et al. September 2013 Report Wave Socio-economics
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Tidal, Wave Noise
Wavestar Demonstrator, Monthly Report for June 2013 Wave Star A/S July 2013 Report Wave
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Wave and Tidal Stream Projects and Migratory Salmonids Slaski, R., Hirst, D., Gray, S. July 2013 Report Tidal, Wave Fish
Hydroacoustic Measurements of the Noise Radiated from Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project and Project WESA Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J., Leijon, M. June 2013 Conference Paper Wave Noise
Wave Modelling for Potential Wave Energy Sites around the Outer Hebrides N/A June 2013 Conference Paper Wave Energy Removal
Impacts of a Wave Farm on Waves, Currents and Coastal Morphology in South West England Gonzalez-Santamaria, R., Zou, Q., Pan, S. June 2013 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Assessment Method for Sound Radiated by Cyclically Operating Wells Turbines Starzmann, R., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wave Noise
Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J., Leijon, M. May 2013 Journal Article Wave Noise
Wave & Tidal Knowledge Network The Crown Estate April 2013 Website Wave, Tidal
The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea Diaconu, S., Rusu, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Scapa Flow Wave Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. February 2013 Report Wave Noise
Environmental Scoping Report Achill Co Mayo Kavanagh, P. January 2013 Report Wave
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Wave, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Will Ocean Energy Harm Marine Ecosystems? Hammar L. January 2013 Research Study Annex IV Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Wavestar Prototype at Roshage: Performance Data for ForskVE Project No 2009-1-10305 Phase 1 & 2 Wave Star A/S January 2013 Report Wave
Economic Evaluation of the Recreational Value of the Coastal Environment in a Marine Renewables Deployment Area Voke, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Aesthetics, Recreation
Further Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Subsequent Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay, CA Magalen, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Baseline Measurement of Underwater Noise Under the SURGE Project Soares, C., et al. December 2012 Conference Paper Wave Noise
Multibeam Imaging of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices Williamson, B., Blondel, P. December 2012 Journal Article Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Fish
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