Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Solar energy from the sun creates temperature differentials that result in wind. The interaction between wind and the surface of water creates waves, which are larger when there is a greater distance for them to build up. Wave energy potential is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast because of the global direction of wind. When evaluating wave energy as a technology type, it is important to distinguish between the four most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

Point Absorber Buoy

This device floats on the surface of the water, held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity. EMF generated by electrical transmission cables and acoustic of these devices may be a concern for marine organisms. The presence of the buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as potential minor collision risk and roosting sites. Potential also exists for entanglement in mooring lines. Energy removed from the waves may also affect the shoreline, resulting in a recommendation that sites remain a considerable distance from the shore.

Surface Attenuator

These devices act similarly to point absorber buoys, with multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. A flexing motion is created by swells that drive hydraulic pumps to generate electricity. Environmental effects are similar to those of point absorber buoys, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

Oscillating water column devices can be located on shore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity. Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers.

Overtopping Device

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a greater water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either on shore or floating offshore. Floating devices will have environmental concerns about the mooring system affecting benthic organisms, organisms becoming entangled, or EMF effects produced from subsea cables. There is also some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise and wave energy removal affecting the nearfield habitat.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes. Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision, artificial reefing near the fixed point, EMF effects from subsea cables, and energy removal effecting sediment transport.

Total Results: 100
Title Author Research Start Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Reviews of Power Supply and Environmental Energy Conversions for Artificial Upwelling Zhang, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article OTEC, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact Assessment in the Marine Environment: A Comparison of Legal Frameworks Guerra, F., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Discussion of the Effects of the Underwater Noise Radiated by a Wave Energy Device - Portugal Cruz, E., Simas, T., Kasanen, E. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave Energy Removal
Environmental Assessment, Management and Monitoring of Carnegie Wave Energy’s Perth Wave Energy Project Ward, E., Sawyer, T. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind Birds
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Wave, Tidal Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals Tougaard, J. July 2015 Journal Article Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Integrating Ocean Wave Energy at Large-Scales: A Study of the US Pacific Northwest Parkinson, S., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wave Farfield Environment
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wave, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
The Challenging Life of Wave Energy Devices at Sea: A Few Points to Consider Tiron, R., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wave Static Device
The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of Wave Energy Using GIS Based Analysis: The Case Study of Portugal Castro-Santos, L., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Session 1 Presentation - Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: A Coupled Wave and Hydrodynamic Model of Santa Cruz, Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Chang, G., Roberts, J. January 2015 Presentation Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
RiCORE Project Gray D., et al. January 2015 Research Study Annex IV Wave, Ocean Current, Tidal
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Non-Intrusive Wave Field Measurement Bourdier, S., et al. November 2014 Report Wave
Environmental Impact Assessments for Wave Energy Developments - Learning from Existing Activities and Informing Future Research Priorities Leeney, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wave Fish
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wave, Tidal Socio-economics
Assessment of the Changes Induced by a Wave Energy Farm in the Nearshore Wave Conditions Bento, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Anticipated Coastal Impacts: What Water-Users Think of Marine Renewables and Why Stokes, C., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics
Wave Farm Impact: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Iglesias, G., Carballo, R. September 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter Bull, D., et al. September 2014 Report Wave
Investigation of Spatial Variation of Sea States Offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA Using a Hindcast Model Dallman, A., Neary, V., Stephenson, M. September 2014 Report Wave
Wave Farm Modelling of Oscillating Wave Surge Converters Sarkar, D., Renzi, E., Dias, F. July 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal
Physical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters Sheng, W., Alcorn, R., Lewis, T. July 2014 Journal Article Wave
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera Ltd June 2014 Report Wave, Tidal Nearfield Habitat
EMEC Billia Croo Wave Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Wave Birds, Marine Mammals
A Wave Farm for an Island: Detailed Effects on the Nearshore Wave Climate Veigas, M., Ramos, V., Iglesias, G. May 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Wave, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Further Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Porter, A., Ruehl, K., Chartrand, C. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave
Annex IV - Investigating Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Through International Cooperation Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave, Tidal Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Analysis of the Impacts of Wave Energy Converter Arrays on the Nearshore Wave Climate O'Dea, A., Haller, M. April 2014 Conference Paper Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Wave, Tidal Ecosystem
Wave Farm Impact on the Beach Profile: A Case Study Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. April 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
A Remotely Operated, Autonomous Wave Energy Converter System Lewis, T. March 2014 Thesis Wave
D2.12 Collation of Wave Simulation Methods Guillouzouic, B. January 2014 Report Wave
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Wave and Tidal Enabling Actions Report: Consolidation of Wave and Tidal EIA / HRA Issues and Research Priorities Aquatera Ltd January 2014 Report Wave, Tidal
Wave Energy Test Site Environmental Assessment: Marine Corps Base Hawaii Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) January 2014 Report Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Sotenäs Project Seabased AB January 2014 Project Site Annex IV Wave
Underwater Radiated Noise from Point Absorbing Wave Energy Converters: Noise Characteristics and Possible Environmental Effects Haikonen, K. January 2014 Thesis Wave Noise
Environmental Monitoring at the Sotenäs Wave Energy Park Sundberg J. January 2014 Research Study Annex IV Wave Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
D2.5 EC Report on Instrumentation Best Practice Têtu, A., et al. December 2013 Report Wave
Biological and Existing Data Analysis to Inform Risk of Collision and Entanglement Hypotheses Kropp, R. December 2013 Report Wave Static Device Marine Mammals
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewables Thomsen F. December 2013 Research Study Annex IV Wave, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Coastal Impact Induced by a Pelamis Wave Farm Operating in the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Soares, C. October 2013 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Development of SNL-SWAN, A Validated Wave Energy Converter Array Modeling Tool Ruehl, K., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper Wave
Enabling Wave Power: Streamlining Processes for Progress Greaves, D., et al. September 2013 Report Wave Socio-economics
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Wave, Tidal Noise
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Wave and Tidal Stream Projects and Migratory Salmonids Slaski, R., Hirst, D., Gray, S. July 2013 Report Wave, Tidal Fish
Hydroacoustic Measurements of the Noise Radiated from Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project and Project WESA Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J., Leijon, M. June 2013 Conference Paper Wave Noise
Impacts of a Wave Farm on Waves, Currents and Coastal Morphology in South West England Gonzalez-Santamaria, R., Zou, Q., Pan, S. June 2013 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Assessment Method for Sound Radiated by Cyclically Operating Wells Turbines Starzmann, R., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wave Noise
Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts Haikonen, K., Sundberg, J., Leijon, M. May 2013 Journal Article Wave Noise
Wave & Tidal Knowledge Network The Crown Estate April 2013 Website Wave, Tidal
The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea Diaconu, S., Rusu, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Scapa Flow Wave Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. February 2013 Report Wave Noise
Environmental Scoping Report Achill Co Mayo Kavanagh, P. January 2013 Report Wave
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Wave, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Will Ocean Energy Harm Marine Ecosystems? Hammar L. January 2013 Research Study Annex IV Wave, Ocean Current, Tidal Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Further Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Subsequent Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay, CA Magalen, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Baseline Measurement of Underwater Noise Under the SURGE Project Soares, C., et al. December 2012 Conference Paper Wave Noise
Multibeam Imaging of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices Williamson, B., Blondel, P. December 2012 Journal Article Wave, Tidal Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Fish
Economic Modelling of the Potential of Wave Energy Hayward, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
The New Wave Energy Converter WaveCat: Concept and Laboratory Tests Fernandez, H., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wave
Modelling the Vertical Directivity of Noise from Underwater Drilling Ward, P., Needham, K. December 2012 Conference Paper Wave Noise
D2.13 Collation of Model Construction Methods Lopes, M., Candido, J., Mallen, L. November 2012 Report Wave
Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses Kim, C., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Acoustic Noise Measurement Methodology for the Billia Croo Wave Energy Test Site Lepper, P., et al. November 2012 Report Wave Noise
D2.1 Wave Instrumentation Database Lawrence, J., et al. October 2012 Report Wave
Disruption to Benthic Habitats by Moorings of Wave Energy Installations: A Modelling Case Study and Implications for Overall Ecosystem Functioning Krivtsov, V., Linfoot, B. October 2012 Journal Article Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Understanding the Role of Stakeholders in the Wave Energy Consenting Process: Engagement and Sensitivities Simas, T., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Wave Socio-economics
Impact of Wave Energy Converter Array (WEC) Operation on Nearshore Processes Neill, S., Iglesias, G. October 2012 Conference Paper Wave Nearfield Habitat
D2.14 Wave Data Presentation and Storage Review Magagna, D., et al. September 2012 Report Wave
Accommodating Wave and Tidal Energy - Control and Decision in Scotland Johnson, K., Kerr, S., Side, J. September 2012 Journal Article Wave, Tidal Socio-economics
Annex A: Summary of Operational Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter System at the EMEC Wave Energy Test Site May 2011: Comparison of Pelamis System Operational and Baseline Noise Measurements Lepper, P., et al. September 2012 Report Wave Noise
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Survey, Deploy and Monitor Licensing Policy Guidance Marine Scotland August 2012 Report Wave, Tidal Socio-economics
Oregon State University and Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Wave Energy Test Project US Department of Energy August 2012 Report Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wave, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Offshore Wave Energy Generation Devices: Impacts on Ocean Bio-Environment Lin, L., Yu, H. June 2012 Journal Article Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
TeraWatt: Large Scale Interactive Coupled 3D Modelling Heath M., et al. June 2012 Research Study Annex IV Wave, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Oyster 800 Aquamarine Power June 2012 Project Site Annex IV Wave
Gathering the Perspectives and Experience from Test Sites and Device Developers for Environmental and Socio Economic Impact Assessment of Wave Energy Magagna, D., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Socio-economics
Further Analysis Of Change In Nearshore Wave Climate Due To An Offshore Wave Farm: An Enhanced Case Study For The Wave Hub Site Smith, H., Pearce, C., Millar, D. April 2012 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Pilot Marine Spatial Plan for the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Turnbull S. April 2012 Research Study Annex IV Wave, Tidal Static Device Socio-economics
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Wave, Tidal Socio-economics
Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near‐Shore Wave Fields: Model Generation, Validation and Evaluation ‐ Kaneohe Bay, HI Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. March 2012 Report Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 – 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Wave, Tidal Socio-economics
West Orkney South Wave Energy Site Environmental Scoping Report RSK Environment Ltd March 2012 Report Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Impact of Wave Energy Arrays on Beach Processes Neill, S., et al. February 2012 Presentation Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Marine Energy Marine Scotland February 2012 Website Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind
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