Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. Advantages of offshore wind include stronger and more consistent winds, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway.  The technologies supporting offshore wind development are varied. For example, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used in shallow depth applications (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding. The footprint is relatively small, but may still cause scouring or artificial reefs. Transmission lines also produce an electromagnetic field that may be harmful to some marine organisms.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used in transitional depth applications (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, though less depth is necessary because of the wide foundation. The environmental effects are a combination of those for monopile and gravity foundations.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used in shallow depth applications (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefs, or physical destruction of habitat upon introduction. Transmission lines also produce an electromagnetic field that may be harmful to some marine organisms.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used in transitional depth applications (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs, one structure sitting on the seabed while the other is above the water. As of 2013, no offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used in deep depth applications (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, the mooring lines, or ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or a potential for collision. Transmission lines also produce an electromagnetic field that may be harmful to some marine organisms.

Total Results: 845
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Legal and Policy
Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification Carpenter, J., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Turbulent Wake of a Monopile Foundation Rogan, C., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Energy Removal
Offshore Wind Turbines: An Overview of the Effects on the Marine Environment Riefolo, L., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Offshore Wind
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Role of Benthic Habitat Distribution Data in Coastal Water Wind Turbine Site Selection Sahla, M., Kalliola, R., Haldin, M. May 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
An Indicator to Objectively Quantify the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A. April 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Aesthetics
Renewable Energy in SITU Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Environmental Interview: Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life Kautsky, L. March 2016 Video Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals
Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life Bray, L., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem
The Adhesion of Corrosion Protection Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Constructions after Three Years under Offshore Exposure Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. March 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Chemicals
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Climate Change, Legal and Policy
Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study (ACPARS) ACPARS Working Group February 2016 Report Offshore Wind Navigation
What Drives Attitudes towards Marine Renewable Energy Development in Island Communities in the UK? de Groot, J., Bailey, I. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Stakeholder Engagement
The expected efficiency and coastal impact of a hybrid energy farm operating in the Portuguese nearshore Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
Public Opinion and the Environmental, Economic and Aesthetic Impacts of Offshore Wind Bush, D., Hoagland, P. February 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Multiple-Pulse Sounds and Seals: Results of a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Telemetry Study During Wind Farm Construction Hastie, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farm Site Selection Study around Jeju Island, South Korea Kim, T., Park, J., Maeng, J. January 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics
A Methodology for Multi-Criteria Design of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms for Marine Renewable Energy Harvesting Zanuttigh, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax Debusschere, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies Booth, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind
Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals Verfuss, U., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Approaching Population Thresholds in Presence of Uncertainty: Assessing Displacement of Seabirds from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., Garthe, S. January 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Seabirds
Valuation of Ecological and Amenity Impacts of an Offshore Windfarm as a Factor in Marine Planning Börger, T., Hooper, T., Austen, M. December 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Seabirds
Energy Systems and their Impacts on Marine Ecosystem Services Papathanasopoulou, E., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Likelihood of a Marine Vessel Accident from Wind Energy Development in the Atlantic Copping, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Legal and Policy
Influence of Concrete Mix Design on CO2 Emissions for Large Wind Turbine Foundations Berndt, M. November 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Strategic Planning to Reduce Conflicts for Offshore Wind Development in Taiwan: A Social Marketing Perspective Chen, J., Liu, H., Chuang, C. October 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Monitoring Bat Activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014 Lagerveld, S., Poerink, B., de Vries, P. September 2015 Report Offshore Wind Bats
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind
Rapid Macrobenthic Recovery after Dredging Activities in an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind Birds
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Succession and Seasonal Dynamics of the Epifauna Community on Offshore Wind Farm Foundations and their Role as Stepping Stones for Non-Indigenous Species Mesel, I., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Seabirds
Assessment of Entanglement Risk to Marine Megafauna due to Offshore Renewable Energy Mooring Systems Harnois, V., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Seabird Avoidance and Attraction at an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Seabirds
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Towards a Cumulative Collision Risk Assessment of Local and Migrating Birds in North Sea Offshore Wind Farms Brabant, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Passerines, Seabirds
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind
Toward Wind Farm Monitoring Optimization: Assessment of Ecological Zones from Marine Landscapes using Machine Learning Algorithms Grilli, A., Shumchenia, E. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Comparison of Manual and Semi-Automatic Underwater Imagery Analyses for Monitoring of Benthic Hard-Bottom Organisms at Offshore Renewable Energy Installations Saskov, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Equivocal Effects of Offshore Wind Farms in Belgium on Soft Substrate Epibenthos and Fish Assemblages Vandendriessche, S., Derweduwen, J., Hostens, K. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
An Analytical Model for the Underwater Sound Pressure Waveforms Radiated when an Offshore Pile is Driven Hall, M. August 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise
Impulsive Sounds Change European Seabass Swimming Patterns: Influence of Pulse Repetition Interval Neo, Y., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Leading Edge Erosion of Coated Wind Turbine Blades: Review of Coating Life Models Slot, H., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Chemicals
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Attitudes and Perceptions of Fishermen on the Island of Ireland Towards the Development of Marine Renewable Energy Projects Reilly, K., O'Hagan, A., Dalton, G. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Integrated Environmental Mapping and Monitoring, a Methodological Approach to Optimise Knowledge Gathering and Sampling Strategy Nilssen, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind
Identifying Information Needs and Approaches for Assessing Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Development on Fisheries Resources in the Northeast Region Petruny-Parker, M., et al. July 2015 Report Offshore Wind Socio-economics
MR1 & MR2 Current State of Knowledge of the Effects of Offshore Renewable Energy Generation Devices on Marine Mammals and Research Requirements: Update, September 2014 Thompson, D., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
MR6.1 Review of Methodology and Main Results of the JCP Analysis of Cetacean Densities in the Context of Marine Renewable Development Lonergan, M., Hammond, P. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
MR6.2 Definition of 'Range' in the Context of Marine Renewable Energy Development and Marine Mammal Conservation Northridge, S. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Sustainable Seas Ko ngā moana whakauka: National Science Challenge Hall, J., et al. July 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part A: Methods Ministry of Economic Affairs July 2015 Report Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part B: Description and Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Implementing the Roadmap for Offshore Wind Power Ministry of Economic Affairs July 2015 Report Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Passerines, Seabirds
Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development? Arnould, J., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Temporal Variation in Environmental Conditions and the Structure of Fish Assemblages around an Offshore Oil Platform in the North Sea Fujii, T. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
A Computational Method to Predict and Study Underwater Noise due to Pile Driving Schecklman, S., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise
Sound Exposure in Harbour Seals During the Installation of an Offshore Wind Farm: Predictions of Auditory Damage Hastie, G., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Seabird-Wind Farm Interactions During the Breeding Season Vary Within and Between Years: A Case Study of Lesser Black-Backed Gull Larus fuscus in the UK Thaxter, C., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Seabirds
Advancing the Environmentally Responsible Development of Offshore Wind Energy in New York State: A Regulatory Review and Stakeholder Perceptions New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) June 2015 Report Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Floating Offshore Turbines Tande, J., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind
Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the North Sea on Fish Communities Stenberg, C., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Fish
Practical Management of Cumulative Anthropogenic Impacts with Working Marine Examples Wright, A., Kyhn, L. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Ecosystem
Ocean Zoning for Conservation, Fisheries and Marine Renewable Energy: Assessing Trade-Offs and Co-Location Opportunities Yates, K., Schoeman, D., Klein, C. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: Cumulative Effects of Impulsive Underwater Sound on Marine Mammals Heinis, F., de Jong, C. April 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
TROPOS Project Final Report Brito, J. March 2015 Report Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Marine Planning for Wales - Strategic Scoping Exercise Welsh Government March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Scotland's National Marine Plan - A Single Framework for Managing Our Seas Marine Scotland March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms Development in Relation to Environmental Protected Areas Spiropoulou, I., Karamanis, D., Kehayias,G. February 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind
Dark Green Electricity Comes from the Sea: Capitalizing on Ecological Merits of Offshore Wind Power? Toonen, H., Lindeboom, H. February 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Rights and Ownership in Sea Country: Implications of Marine Renewable Energy for Indigenous and Local Communities Kerr, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Mitigating Wind-Turbine Induced Avian Mortality: Sensory, Aerodynamic and Cognitive Constraints and Options May, R., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Performance and Integrity of Protective Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Structures after Three Years Under Offshore Site Conditions Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. February 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Chemicals
Private Incentives for the Emergence of Co-Production of Offshore Wind Energy and Mussel Aquaculture Griffin, R., Buck, B., Krause, G. January 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
Renewables-To-Reefs? Decommissioning Options for the Offshore Wind Power Industry Smyth, K., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: A First Approach to Deal with Cumulative Effects on Birds and Bats of Offshore Wind Farms and Other Human Activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
The New Mode of Marine Planning in the UK: Aspirations and Challenges Scarff, G., Fitzsimmons, C., Gray, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Renewable Energy Developments in an Uncertain World: The Case of Offshore Wind and Birds in the UK Masden, E., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Birds
Lessons from Stakeholder Dialogues on Marine Aquaculture in Offshore Wind Farms: Perceived Potentials, Constraints and Research Gaps Wever, L., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Special Issue: Renewable Ocean Energy Development and the Environment Zydlewski, G., Copping, A., Redden, A. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
The European Offshore Wind Industry - Key Trends and Statistics 2014 Corbetta, G., et al. January 2015 Report Offshore Wind
Will Offshore Energy Face "Fair Winds and Following Seas"?: Understanding the Factors Influencing Offshore Wind Acceptance Teisl, M., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics
On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics Ludewig, E. January 2015 Book Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwestern Baltic Sea: A Model Study of Regional Impacts on Oxygen Conditions Janßen, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem
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